I’ve now explored the lives of three of the children of William Boulton, a citizen and gunmaker in the parish of All Hallows Barking, and his wife Alice, who was the sister of my 9 x great grandfather Thomas Forrest, a citizen and haberdasher in the neighbouring parish of St Botolph Aldgate, in the later decades of the seventeenth century. Having summarised what we know about Major Peter Boulton, Elizabeth Boulton and Captain Richard Boulton, I now turn to another Boulton sister – one whose descendants were probably among the most illustrious that the family produced. The trouble is, we don’t really know her name. In an earlier post, I gave her the name Margaret, because of a suggestion I once saw in a record that I can no longer trace. But given the names of her mother, and her two daughters, she might equally well have been christened Alice, or Hester, or Grace – or something entirely different.


Lower Moor viewed from Hill, Fladbury, Worcestershire (via http://e-services.worcestershire.gov.uk)

Let’s begin by returning to the will of William Forrest of Badsey, Worcestershire, who died in 1700. He was the brother both of my ancestor Thomas Forrest and of Alice Forrest who married William Boulton. The will includes the following bequest:

To William Grace and Hester children of Mr Thomas Saunders of Moore twenty shillings apeece 

Following this lead, I’ve discovered that William, Grace and Hester were the children of Thomas Saunders by his marriage to one of the daughters (possibly named Margaret) of William and Alice Boulton. It’s likely that she was the eldest, or one of the eldest of the Boulton siblings, probably being born in the early 1660s and marrying her husband Thomas Saunders in about 1680. The ‘Moore’ mentioned in William Forrest’s will is the hamlet of Hill and Moor, consisting of Upper Moor and Lower Moor, which was part of the parish of Fladbury, where the Forrest family originated.

Thomas Saunders, nonjuror

Thomas Saunders or Sanders is almost certainly the ‘gent, of Moore, in Fladbury, Worcs’ who was included in a return of ‘papists’ and nonjurors’ estates’ published in 1723. The description of the list of nonjurors at the National Archives reads as follows:

Following the Jacobite Rebellion of 1715, all catholics refusing to take oaths of loyalty to king and government were required to register their names and estates at quarter sessions. Lands not so registered would be forfeit.

This series consists of returns by clerks of the peace for most counties of England and Wales and several towns of the names and estate details of catholics and nonjurors, registered pursuant to an Act of 1722.

The returns describe the estates in detail, giving precise locations and dimensions of lands; land and building names; topographical and building details; and all privileges and appurtenances. Tenants are named, with details of tenure, and rents are sometimes given. In most instances it is not clear whether the returnees were catholics or nonjurors. 

As this note explains, inclusion in the list does not necessarily mean that the person named was a Catholic. Many nonjurors were Anglicans, as in this Wikipedia entry confirms:

The nonjuring schism was a split in the Anglican churches of England, Scotland and Ireland in the aftermath of the Glorious Revolution of 1688, over whether William of Orange and his wife Mary could legally be recognised as King and Queen of England, Scotland and Ireland.

The word ‘nonjuring’ means ‘not swearing [an oath]’, from the Latin word iuro or juro meaning ‘to swear an oath’. 

Many of the Anglican clergy felt legally bound by their previous oaths of allegiance to James II and, though they could accept William as regent, they could not accept him as king. It was not necessarily a split on matters of religious doctrine, but more of a political issue and a matter of conscience, though most of the conjurors were high church Anglicans. Thus, latitudinarian Anglicans were handed control of the Church of England. The nonjurors thus were nominally Jacobite, although they generally did not actively support the Jacobite rebellions in 1715 or 1745.

There are 21 individual entries in total in the return for Worcestershire, and Thomas Sanders’ is the only one for Fladbury. One of Thomas’ neighbours, the recusant Sir Robert Throckmorton, is listed under Warwickshire (where his main residence was), while his main address is given as Weston Underwood in Buckinghamshire. The Worcestershire entries are introduced thus:

A Coppy of the Severall Registers made with the Clerk of the Peace for the County of Worcester by such persons who refused to take the Oaths pursuant to an Act of Parliament made in the ninth Yeare of the Reign of his present Majesty King George Entitled an Act to Oblige all persons being papist in that part of Great Brittaine called Scotland and all persons in Great Brittaine refuseing or neglecting to take the Oaths appointed for the Security of his Majesties person and Government by Severall Acts herein mentioned to Register their names and Real Estates.

The entry for Thomas Sanders reads as follows:

A true particular of the Messuages Lands Tenements and Hereditaments of Thomas Sanders of Moore in the parish of Fladbury in the County of Worcs. Gent whereof I the s[ai]d. Thomas Sanders or any other person or persons in Trust for me or for my use are Seized or poss[ess]ed or in receipt or perception of the Rents and Proffitts thereof as followeth Vizt. –

One Messuage One Tenement one Stable one Barne and some other Outhouseing belonging to the said Messuage or Tenement Twelve Acres of thereabouts of Meadow and pasture Ground also belonging to the said Messuage or Tenement in the poss[ess]ion of me the said Thomas Sanders of the Yearely Value of sixteen pounds.

One other Messuage or Tenement and Garden in the poss[ess]ion of Mary Willis of the Yearely value of Twenty Shillings All other the Outhouses Lands Tenements and Hereditaments whatsoever belonging to the firstmentioned Messuage or Tenement are now in the poss[ess]ion of and Rented by John Knowles at the Yearely Rent of 54 s.[?] All which said Messuages Landes and premisses are Situate lyeing and being in Hill Moore and Wyre Piddle in the said parish of Fladbury in the said County of Worcs. In Wittness whereof I have hereunto subscribed my name the 14th Day of January Anno D[o]m[i]ni 1723. Tho: Sanders. Subscribed in Open Court at the General Quarter Sessions of the Peace for the County of Worcester the fourteenth day of January 1723. Hen: Townshend. W: Byrche.

Hill, Moor and Wyre Piddle were all hamlets within the parish of Fladbury. John Knowles, one of Thomas Sanders’ tenants named here, was included in the ‘list of voters from the last election in Fladbury’ appended to the letter written in July 1702 by William Lloyd, Bishop of Worcester, to the rector of Fladbury, urging him to discourage his parishioners from voting for the high church Tory Sir John Pakington (see below). As for Pakington himself, he doesn’t seem to have been a nonjuror (presumably this would have prevented him for standing for election?), though he had refused to swear the ‘Assocation’ oath of loyalty to William III in 1696, was known to have sheltered nonjurors, and at the time of the 1715 Jacobite rebellion was one of nine Members of Parliament ordered into custody.

Pakington faced a vigorous campaign against him by Bishop Lloyd. In the words of one source:

Lloyd used the occasion of his episcopal visitation to issue veiled exhortations to the voters to eschew Pakington, and in private excoriated the baronet for debauchery and adherence to the Pretender. The dispute between Pakington and Lloyd epitomized one of the most important divisions within the Church, that between an increasingly Whiggish, Latitudinarian episcopate and a High Anglican, Tory squirearchy. 

Lloyd went so far as to write to local vicars to encourage them to put pressure on their electors to vote against Pakington. One letter, ‘To the Reverend Poutney, Rector of Fladbury’ berates the local electors for voting for Pakington in the past and adds a postscript: ‘The enclosed is a list of the voters from Fladbury at the last election. I pray God direct them this time to vote better or to stay away’. The list then follows –and it’s from this list that we know that Thomas Sanders or Saunders was one of those entitled to a vote in the parish, as well as one or two other names, such as Thomas Horniblow and William and Richard Bushell, whose families were linked to my Forrest and Boulton ancestors.


Entry for Thomas Sa(u)nders of Moor in the returns of nonjurors’ estates, 1723

So Thomas Sanders or Saunders might have been a ‘high church’ Anglican rather than a Catholic; I’ve certainly found no evidence of Catholic affiliation among his immediate descendants. However, there is certainly evidence of continuing nonjuring sympathies among the population in that part of Worcestershire. Apparently Worcestershire in general was strongly royalist during the Civil War. We also know that the Throckmortons, one of the prominent landowning families in the Fladbury area, remained Catholic, supported the King in the Civil War, and suffered loss of their estates as a result. As I’ve noted before, Thomas Throckmorton of Coughton was mentioned in the same legal document as Robert, William and Thomas Forrest ‘all of Hill in Fladbury, husbandmen’ in 1608.

Thomas Saunders and his wife had three children: William, Grace and Hester. I haven’t been able to discover anything further about William Saunders, but we have good information for Grace, Hester and their descendants. It’s possible that the Saunders family owned property in London, as well as Worcestershire, since both of their daughters would marry London merchants. Alternatively, the connection with their future husbands may have come through their London aunts and uncles.

Grace Saunders

Grace Saunders married Jersey-born James Jemblin, probably in 1706. On 13th April 1708 James Jemblin was admitted as a freeman of the City of London, in the Company of Salters. From 1707 until 1718, he paid land tax on a property in Rood Precinct, presumably near Rood Lane, off Tower Street in the parish of St Dunstan in the East.


Section of Rocque’s 1746 map of London, showing the area around the church of St Dunstan in the East

On 30th July 1707, John Jemblin, son of James and Grace Jemblin, was christened at the church of St Dunstan in the East in the City of London. On 14th July 1709, the same couple had a son named Thomas baptised at the same church. On 23rd June 1710, James and Grace had a daughter named Elizabeth christened there.

Grace must have died soon afterwards, perhaps giving birth to Elizabeth, because on 9th September 1711, James Jemblin, a widower of the parish of St Dunstan in the East, married Mary Yates, a ‘single woman’ of the parish of St Edmund King and Martyr, Lombard Street, in her home parish church. This second marriage would also produce three children. Francis Jemblin was christened at St Dunstan’s on 21st November 1712; James on 18th April 1715; and Mary on 4th April 1717.

In 1722, James Jemblin senior’s name appeared in the poll book for the election of Members of Parliament for the City of London, under the category of ‘salters’. He voted for Heysham, Barnard and Godfrey: two Whigs and a Tory. It’s possible that James Jemblin retired to the country at some point, since a marginal note to his will describes him as living in Woodford, Essex; or it might simply be that he maintained a second home, as did so many eighteenth-century London merchants.

James Jemblin died in February 1723. We know from his will, written shortly before his death, that his second wife Mary had predeceased him. Moreover, the only children mentioned in the will are John, Francis and Elizabeth, so we must assume that Thomas, James and Mary all died before reaching adulthood. The three surviving children, together with James’ mother Margaret (also mentioned in his will), are listed as his orphans and dependants in an official document from this period. Captain Richard Boulton, the uncle of Jemblin’s first wife Grace Saunders, was appointed as one of the executors of the will.

Captain Boulton’s own will, drawn up shortly before his death in 1737, makes a bequest to ‘my Niece Collibye’. This was James and Grace Jemblin’s daughter Elizabeth, who at some point married Edward Bushell Collibee, an apothecary who would later serve as mayor of Bath, and who was related to the Bushell family of Bath and Worcestershire, among whose number were both the first and second wives of Major Peter Boulton. In fact, to be accurate, Elizabeth Collibee née Jemblin was actually Richard Boulton’s great niece.

As for Elizabeth’s brother John Jemblin, we know from Captain Richard Boulton’s will that he was still alive in 1737, and from the 1740 will of another Richard Boulton (nephew of the first) that by then he was living in Evesham, where perhaps he had inherited property belonging to his mother’s family.

Hester Saunders

Thomas Saunders’ other daughter Hester was said to be living in the parish of All Hallows Barking in the City of London, close to her Boulton relatives, when she married Thomas Crabb on 12th October 1708, at the church of St Paul, Benet’s Wharf. According to the marriage record, Thomas was from Whitechapel, and he and Hester would live in that part of London for a time after their marriage. As for his origins, to some extent they remain shrouded in mystery. I wonder if he was the son of Isaac Crabb who was paying tax ‘for house and vaults’ in Priest Alley in the parish of All Hallows Barking in 1715? It seems too much of a coincidence that his next door neighbour was Martin Markland, who was married to Hester Saunders’ aunt Elizabeth Boulton, and that the house next to that was occupied by her uncle Major Peter Boulton.

This Isaac Crabb was a merchant who had been born into a family of Quaker clothiers in Wiltshire. He was almost certainly the Isaac Crabb of All Hallows Barking who married the delightfully named Freelove Crispe, daughter of Thomas Crispe of Wimbledon, at St Nicholas Cole Abbey in September 1685. A case recorded in the National Archives concerns a dispute between Isaac Crabb on the one hand, and on the other side Thomas Crabb, a clothier of Marlborough, Wiltshire, and Thomas Crispe, a draper of London, concerning property in Wimbledon and Savernake Forest, Wiltshire. This may have been a disagreement over a marriage settlement, and it’s possible that Thomas Crabb was Isaac’s father.

At any event, Thomas and Freelove Crabbe had a son named Thomas christened at the church of St Dunstan in the East in London in 1687: this date would fit well with what we know of the Thomas Crabb who married Hester Saunders, making him twenty-one at the time of their marriage. The parish clerk at St Dunstan’s recorded Thomas’ mother’s name as ‘Trulove’, but by the time his sister Hester was christened in the following year, Freelove had reverted to her original (and possibly Quaker-derived?) first name.

Henry and Richard Crabb Boulton

Thomas and Hester Crabb were living in Leman Street, which ran north to south between Ayliff Street and Rosemary Lane, close to Goodman fields, when Henry, their first child, was baptised at the church of St Mary, Whitechapel, on 12th September 1709. I haven’t yet found a christening record for Henry’s brother Richard, but other records lead me to believe that he was probably born in about 1710. I’ve found no evidence of any other surviving children born to Thomas and Hester Crabb.


‘The East India Company’, by Thomas Rowlandson (1808)

The first definite record that we have for Henry Crabb, after his baptism, is from 1727, when he was about eighteen years old. This was the year in which he entered the office of the East India Company. By this time his great uncle Captain Richard Boulton the elder, and his second cousin Captain Richard Boulton the younger (about whom I’ll write in the next post), would have been established figures in the company, and no doubt their influence was of help in facilitating their young relative’s entry into the organisation. Unlike his brother Richard, who followed the example of his Boulton relatives and became a sea captain, Henry seems to have followed a purely deskbound career, but it was one in which he rose rapidly through the ranks. By 1729, two years after joining the Company, he was working as a clerk in the pay office. In the following year, he was appointed assistant paymaster and the year after that joint paymaster. By 1737, when he was still only twenty-eight years old, Henry was the East India Company’s sole paymaster and the clerk to their committee of shipping.

1737 was also the year in which Captain Richard Boulton the elder made his will, appointing Henry as join executor with Richard Boulton junior and Richard Gosfright. Since the elder Richard Boulton had no surviving children of his own, the main beneficiaries of his will were the brothers Henry and Richard Crabb and their cousin John Jemblin. However, these three were only to come into possession of their share of Richard Boulton’s estate upon taking to themselves the additional surname Boulton. Henceforth the records would refer to them as Henry Crabb Boulton and Richard Crabb Boulton.

A codicil was annexed to the will, and this was witnessed by Francis Jemblin, James’ Jemblin’s son from his second marriage to Mary Yates, and by Henry and Richard Crabb’s mother Hester, who is described in the record as a widow of All Hallows Barking, confirming that her husband Thomas Crabb had died by this date.

In the following year, 1738/9, Henry Crabb’s brother Richard was married at the church of St Mary at Hill in the City of London, to Frances Heames. Richard was said to be of the parish of All Hallows Barking and Frances of the parish of St Peter within the Tower of London. On 3rd December 1746 their son Richard Crabb the younger was baptised at the church of All Hallows Staining in the City of London. On 26th August 1752 Henry Crabb was christened at the church of St Helen Bishopsgate. On 13th October in the following year, a daughter named Frances was christened at the same church. We know from Richard Crabb Boulton’s will that, as well as his house in Crosby Square, Bishopsgate, he also owned property in Chigwell, Essex.

Henry Crabb Boulton, however, seems never to have married. In 1745, the year of the Jacobite uprising, he and Richard became the beneficiaries of another will, that of their second cousin, Captain Richard Boulton the younger, who had retired to the manor of Perdiswell on the outskirts of Worcester. Both brothers benefited from the will, and Henry was appointed sole executor: a tribute, perhaps, to the skills he had developed managing the payroll of the East India Company. Once again, we learn that Henry’s and Richard’s mother Hester was still alive, and now living now at Tower Hill.

From the early 1750s onwards until his death, Henry Crabb Boulton enjoyed a number of terms as a director of the East India Company. Then, in about 1754, he was elected as Member of Parliament for Worcester, another sign of the Boulton family’s longstanding connection to that part of the country. The History of Parliament Online includes the following information about Henry’s parliamentary career:

In Dupplin’s list of 1754 he was classed as ‘doubtful’; but on 24 Dec. 1755 Sandwich informed Newcastle that Boulton had ‘attended and voted in every question in support of the measures of Government’. In 1761 Boulton was re-elected at Worcester after a contest. Bute’s list of December 1761 classes him as a supporter of Newcastle, and he voted with the Opposition on the peace preliminaries, 9 and 10 Dec. 1762; and on Wilkes, 15 Nov. 1763, and general warrants, 15 and 18 Feb. 1764. 

Originally a follower of Laurence Sulivan in East India Company politics, Boulton later attached himself to Clive, and went over to Administration with him; Jenkinson reported to Grenville on 20 Apr. 1764 that Clive had said Boulton might be depended on, though ‘a great rogue’. Harris notes that during the debate of 1 Mar. 1765 on the bill to regulate splitting East India Company votes, Boulton was ‘at the head of the government party’. 

In Rockingham’s list of July 1765 Boulton was classed as ‘pro’, and in that of November 1766 as ‘Whig’. When, on 9 Dec. 1766 Beckford moved for an inquiry into East India Company affairs, Boulton voted for the motion, and though he ‘said much against it, owned that the Company could not govern their servants, nor could Clive go on without the interposition of Government’.

No other votes by him are reported in this Parliament, but he spoke several times on East India affairs, and on 1 May 1767 when Beckford was again to move for an inquiry, Boulton, on behalf of the Company, informed the House that there ‘was now a prospect of accommodation with the ministry’. In Townshend’s list of January 1767 he was classed as ‘doubtful’, and in Newcastle’s of 2 Mar. as ‘doubtful or absent’. In 1768 Boulton was returned unopposed for Worcester.

For various periods in the 1760s, Henry Crabb Boulton served as chairman of the East India Company, the organisation that he had joined as a humble clerk in the pay office forty years earlier. 

From about 1755, Henry Crabb Boulton’s name appears in directories as a merchant living in Crosby Square, Bishopsgate, in London, the area where his brother Richard also kept a house. In 1763, Henry became the owner of Thorncroft manor in Leatherhead, Surrey, where he lived for the next ten years until his death. Apparently, the manor at Thorncroft had belonged originally to Sir Richard Dalton, but after taking possession in 1763 Henry Crabb Boulton commissioned Sir Robert Taylor to build a new house on the site of the old. The date of construction was 1772 with further enlargements in 1800. The house apparently remains much the same today, though with some modern additions.

When Henry Crabb Boulton made his will in August 1773, a few months before his death, his nephew Henry was one of the main beneficiaries. There is no mention in the will of his other nephew Richard or his niece Frances. Other beneficiaries of Henry’s will included his brother Richard and his cousin Elizabeth Collibee née Jemblin. Also benefitting from the will was a certain Captain Augustus Savage, who seems to have worked for the East India Company, and a number of Henry’s household servants. 

Henry Crabb Boulton junior

Just over a year after Henry Crabb Boulton’s death, his nephew Henry, son of his brother Richard Crabb Boulton, was married. On 3rd November 1775, at the same church in Bishopsgate where he had been christened twenty-three years earlier, Henry Boulton Esquire, as he now styled himself, married Juliana Raymond. She was the daughter of Sir Charles Raymond of Valentines, a country house in Ilford, Essex (now the site of Valentines Park, a favourite place for my parents when they were children). Charles Raymond was another retired East India Company captain who had sailed with Henry’s father Richard, becoming a wealthy man as a result of the private earnings he acquired on his many voyages for the Company. In 1754 he bought Valentines from Robert Surman, a banker with investments in the Company.


Valentine’s, Ilford, in 1771

Juliana Raymond had an older sister Sophia who married Sir William Burrell, Member of Parliament for Haslemere, and grandson of Charles Raymond’s uncle, Hugh Raymond, who had himself served as an East India Company captain earlier in the century. Juliana also had a younger sister, Anna Maria, who married Thomas Newte, a second cousin. Newte had also come up through the ranks of the Company to become a captain, working in close association with the Raymond family. Sadly Anna Maria died in 1781, two years after they were married.


Sir Charles Raymond (via http://blogs.ucl.ac.uk/eicah/case-studies-2/valentines-mansion/valentines-east-india-company-owners-and-their-material-objects/)

Richard Crabb Boulton died in 1777, but he had made his will in 1764, which explains why he left money to his brother Henry, who in the event would predecease him. The principal beneficiary is his wife Frances, but his sons Richard and Henry are also to inherit – so we know that Richard junior survived until at least 1764. However, there is no mention of his daughter Frances, who we must assume had died by this time. Richard Crabb inherited his brother Henry’s house at Thorncroft after the latter’s death, and I assume that on Richard’s death in 1777 his son Henry took possession of it.

After her husband’s health declined, Juliana’s sister Lady Sophia Burrell moved to Deepdene in Dorking, about five miles from Thorncroft. Sophia achieved fame as a poet and dramatist. She published two volumes of collected poems in 1793, the Thymriad from Xenophon, and Telemachus. In 1796 William Burrell died, Lady Burrell having had two sons and two daughters by him. On 23 May 1797 she remarried to the Reverend William Clay. In 1800 Sophia produced two tragedies. The first was Maximian, the second Theodora, dedicated by permission to Georgiana Cavendish, Duchess of Devonshire. 


Eliza de Feullide (via Wikipeidia)

Some time ago I corresponded with Nicholas Ennos, the author of an intriguing book about the novels of Jane Austen, which he controversially argues were written by Austen’s cousin Eliza de Feuillide, who was also married to Jane’s brother Henry. Eliza, who was a close friend of Sophia Burrell, was widely believed to be the illegitimate daughter of Warren Hastings, the Governor General of India. Warren Hastings was a  friend of Sir Charles Raymond. Ennos claims that in Jane Austen’s novel Emma (published in 1815), the town of Highbury is based on Leatherhead and the house of the heroine’s father, ‘Hartfield’, is based on Henry Crabb Boulton’s house at Thorncroft.


Thorncroft, Leatherhead, Surrey

Henry and Juliana baptised 10 children while living at Thorncroft. These were: Frances (1776), Richard (1777), Sophia (1778), Juliana (1779), Maria (1782), Harriet (1783), Emma (1784), Henry (1786), Charles (1788), and Louisa (17910.

In 1781 Henry Boulton bought the manor of Pachenesham and built a new house at Gibbon’s Farm which was named as Gibbon’s Grove. He also bought an estate at Headley and Barnet Wood Farmhouse in Leatherhead. In 1809 he was insuring three farms: Thorncroft, Gibbons Grove and Bocketts. London directories show that he occupied town houses from at least 1792 at 5 Tavistock Square, 12 Upper Gower Street and at 9 Abingdon Street. He was  a member of the Sun Fire Company as early as 1784 and was also Governor of ‘The Corporation for working Mines, Minerals and metals in Scotland’ whose office was in the Sun Fire Office in Cornhill.

Henry retired in 1825 and his son Charles succeeded him. Juliana died before him on 20th December 1813. When Henry died in 1828 his property passed to his son Richard but he died in 1859 without issue. The estates then passed to his brother Charles Boulton’s second son John Boulton, who was a Captain in the Royal Artillery with addresses in Hammersmith and Edinburgh. So John Boulton became the owner of Gibbons Grove and Bocketts farm in Leatherhead, and Thorncroft was finally sold.